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MA Translation Classmates

MA Translation Classmates

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Music Essays

Music: the International Language

Music is a part of people’s lives from all around the world. It has been around for at least 50,000 years and most likely originated in Africa (Wallin, et al. 1). There are several distinct genres of music. The most recognized forms in the western hemisphere are: classical, jazz, rock and folk, as well as others which are essentially branches from the four previously mentioned. Many career options exist for those wishing to pursue music, many of which require one or more scholastic degrees. In music, there are a plethora of diverse structural forms in which music is composed. A structural form usually describes the order the “sections” in a piece of music are written. Without composers, there would be little music today. Most composers have a unique style that they write in that can be identified by anyone with a trained ear. Music is constantly in an evolutionary state, and the music industry changes to reflect that. The future holds endless possibilities for the social and economical effects of new music.

Musical notation was not always nice printed symbols arranged in an easy to read format. The Greeks were the first to implement a system for translating written work into sound. However this system made it difficult for someone to imagine the melody, and was extremely difficult to reproduce, and there were usually many errors on copies. The Romans used the first 15 letters of the Roman alphabet above the applicable words to determine pitch with the first letter as the low pitch and the 15th letter as the high pitch. Neuma, or Neumes, is a very peculiar notation used mostly by 6th to 12th century ecclesiastical writers. Deciphering this notation is essentially guesswork due to the number of variables affecting the sounds. (“Changes in Musical Notation”). Of all the genres of music, classical is the most distinct. It usually includes string instruments, French horns, and trumpets, as well as others. Rock music or “devil music” as some people refer to it, has become increasingly popular around the world since its inception in the mid 1900’s. This type of music is known to use electric guitars, drum kit, and vocals. Jazz also uses those instruments, but in a different way. In a typical “big band” jazz orchestra, there will be five saxophones, four trombones, four trumpets, a pianist, a drummer and a guitarist. The jazz style is quite different from that of other types of music. Normally, the first and third beat of a four beat measure are emphasized, in jazz the second and fourth beats are emphasized.

In music, there are many formal structures (the way sections of a piece repeat) in which songs are written. Sectional form is a mixture of short chunks of a piece (DeLone. et al. 87). Vocal music often employs the use of the strophic form, which repeats the same section over again (AA…). Binary form, as the name might suggest, has two different sections played in succession (AB) or one repeated and then the other repeated (AABB). Similarly to binary form, chain form has three or more sections played in succession (ABC) or (AABBCC). Ternary, or tertiary form, similarly to binary form has two different sections, the difference being there is a “B” section sandwiched in between two “A” sections (ABA). Arch form has three different sections, one “C” section in between two “B” sections, which is then in between two “A” sections (ABCBA). Finally, rondo form, which comes in two varieties: symmetrical and asymmetrical. Symmetrical form is (ABACABA) as asymmetrical form is (ABACADAEA) (“Musical Form”).

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There are many fun and rewarding careers in music many of which involve working with an assortment of creative individuals. Composition, the art of writing music, is one of the more difficult, yet also more rewarding choices, although it is hard to make a living as a composer unless the utmost dedication is displayed. Teaching others music, either by instruments, theory, or otherwise, is an occupation in high demand around the United States (“Bachelor of Music”).

Musicians are the key element of music, without them there would be no live music. Music therapy is one of the less known musical vocations. Music therapists help people with mental illness or disability by using music (“Careers in Music Therapy”).

There have been many great classical composers, each with his or her own identifying characteristics in their writing. Johann Sebastian Bach is known for never leaving pauses in his music. However, George Frideric Handel writes so that there are moments where no notes are played (grand pause.) Mozart has written over 600 pieces of music, all of which were written in one draft. Music is all about sound, and for a mostly deaf man, Ludwig Van Beethoven is quite an accomplished composer.

The music industry is generally defined as “the businesses and organizations that record, produce, publish, distribute, and market recorded music” (“Music Industry”). There are four major record companies or “labels,” Sony BMG, EMI, Universal and Warner. In 2005, Universal dominated the United States market with a 31.71% market share. In a close second came Sony BMG with 31.71%. Warner firmly holds third with a solid 15% market share, leaving EMI to clean up with the remaining 9.55%. Independent labels cover18.13% of the US market, but there are many independent companies and none of which hold a candle to he “big four” (Cashmere).

Music artists and record companies alike make most of their money from music sales, but with the rise of peer-to-peer file sharing networks, it has been increasingly popular to illegally download or, pirate, stolen music. According to the American Federation of Musicians, gross revenue for music drops about 20% annually due to piracy. In reaction to the horrifying statistics the Recording Industry Association of America or, RIAA, has taken a number of steps to fight internet piracy. One of their goals is to inform the public of the repercussions music piracy has on the individuals who earn a living from legitimate music exchange (“Online Music Piracy”).

Jazz is the only style of music native to the United States of America. It is clear that many other genres thought to be “truly American” are actually just bits and pieces from the musical traits of other cultures. Jazz music is brimming with improvisation solos, where a musician is usually given a chord progression also known as “changes,” and the musician plays notes in the scale of the key given at the specified time. Although the ink on the page may say to play in C7 one could just as well play in Cm in stead. Jazz is also not bound to the “limitations” of other forms of music and will not always be cut up into easy-to-identify sections. One thing almost all types of music have in common is scalability, for example, there could be a single saxophonist playing “Harlem Nocturne” on a street corner, or there could be an 18 piece big band orchestra playing the same song in a concert hall. The same applies to classical music, but it is more common to see a street musician playing jazz than classical music.

The invention of solid-state electronics brought on many changes. The music world was affected when someone figured that if you make a keyboard and set it so each key you press produces a different frequency at a line level current and run it through an amplifier, there will be an electronic piano-style keyboard! This device later became known as the analog synthesizer and was used in many performing bands. Several years later, digital sound synthesis technology made it possible to have hundreds of different “patches” on a keyboard, eliminating the need for expensive sound modules for analog synthesizers. Today, both technologies are used, but analog is mostly just used and built for historical and experimental purposes.

Every kind of music requires an instrument, be it human vocal cords, a bassoon, or a microchip, at least one instrument is required. There are three types of “traditional” instruments. Brass instruments are devices in which sound is made by pressing the lips to the large end of an almost conical mouthpiece and buzzing the lips whilst blowing. Instruments requiring no buzzing are referred to as woodwinds. The sound can be made either by a single reed, where the

player places the top front two teeth on top of a tapered mouthpiece and presses the bottom lip over the bottom teeth contacting the reed and blowing so the reed vibrates in between the mouthpiece and the bottom lip. A double reed instrument has no mouthpiece, only two reeds that are pointed together at the end. The third form of woodwind sound production entails placing the lips one the near side of a hole in the mouthpiece and blowing air over the gap, just like making a glass bottle whistle.

In music, there are two categories, one for the high society, and one for the low society. The high society music is that of the classical, baroque romantic and other such eras, are usually preformed in formal venues. In contrast, the low society music such as jazz, rap and hip hop could be preformed in places where formal etiquette is not present such as a casino, night club or parking lot. It is apparent that the average audience member of a classical performance will have an income higher than that of an audience member from a hip hop concert. By analyzing this data, musicologists have concluded that the class distinction is not related to the music itself, rather, the crowd associated with that type of music.

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Translation Method

 * Word-for-word translation

The SL word-order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meaning, out of context. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of word-for-word translation is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a pre-translation process.

* Literal translation

The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.

* Faithful translation

A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical 

Structures. It 'transfer' cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical 'abnormality' in the translation.

* Semantic translation

Semantic translation differs from "faithful translation". It may translate less important cultural words by culturally neutral third or functional terms but not by equivalents.

The distinction between 'faithful' and ' semantic' translation is that the first is uncompromising and dogmatic, while the second is more flexible, admits the creative exception to 100% fidelity and allows for the translator's intuitive empathy with the original.

 

* Adaptation

This is the 'freest' form of translation. It is used mainly for plays and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and the text rewritten.

Free translation *

Free translation reproduced the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. It is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so-called 'intralingual translation', often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all.

Idiomatic translation *

Idiomatic translation reproduces the 'message' of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.

* Communicative translation

Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language

are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. 

 

Comments in these methods

Semantic and communicative translation fulfill the two main aims of translation, first, accuracy, and second, economy.

 

 

 

Differences

Communicative translation

Semantic translation

*A communicative at the readership's

*used for 'informative ' & 'vocative' texts

*is social

 

*concentrates  on the message

*tends to under-translate

 

*tends to be simple, clear & brief

*is better than its original

*has to explain

 

 

 

 

*Written at the author's linguistic level

*used for 'expressive' texts

 

*is personal and individual

 

*follows the thought processes of the author

*tends to over-translate

 

*pursues nuances of meaning

 

*is inferior to its original

*has to interpret

 

EQUIVALENT EFFECT

The overriding purpose of any translation should be to achieve 'equivalent effect', i.e. to produce the same effect on the readership of the translation as was obtained on the readership of the original. (This is also called the 'equivalent response' principle. Nida calls it 'dynamic equivalence'.)

'Equivalent effect' is the desirable result, rather than the aim of any translation.

The more cultural a text, the less is equivalent effect even conceivable unless the reader is imaginative, sensitive and steeped in the SL culture.

Methods and Text-Categories

Considering the application of the two translation methods (semantic and communicative) to the three text-categories, vocative and informative texts are translated too literally, and expressive texts not literally enough.

In expressive texts, the unit of translation is likely to be small, since words rather than sentences contain the finest nuances of meaning.

Informative texts are badly or inaccurately written, they are translated more closely than vocative texts. In principle they are concerned with extra-linguistic facts, they consist of third person sentences, non-emotive style, and past tenses.

The translation of vocative texts involves translation in the problem of the second person, the social factor which varies in its grammatical and lexical reflection from one language to another.

TRANSLATING

As for the process of translation, it is often dangerous to translate more than a sentence or two before reading the first two or three paragraphs, unless a quick glance through convinces you that the text is going to present few problems. Translate by sentence wherever you can ,but translate virtually by words first if they are 'technical' whether they are 'linguistic' , or cultural, or referential and appear relatively context-free. Later, you have to contextualize them.   

OTHER METHODS

Service translation: translation from one's language of habitual use into another language.

Plain prose translation: Usually stanzas become paragraphs; prose punctuation is introduced, original metaphors and SL culture retained, whilst no sound-effects are reproduced.

Information translation: This conveys all the information in a non-literary text, sometimes rearranged in a more logical form, sometimes partially summarized, and not in the form of a paraphrase.

Cognitive translation: This reproduces the information in a SL text converting the SL grammar to its normal TL transposition, normally reducing any figurative to literal language.                                                          

Academic translation: This type of translation, practiced in some British universities, reduces an original SL text to an 'elegant' idiomatic educated TL version which follows a literary register.

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In Your Life

There is excitement in your life …

Be a part of it

There is work in your life …

Begin with it

There is sorrow in your life …

Ease the pain away

There is joy in your life …

Feel it, know it, share it

There are goal in your life …

Strive for the highest

There is purpose in your life …

Explore it.

 

Jonivanَ


ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه هشتم تیر 1390ساعت 20:33  توسط classmate  | 

chapter 3 munday

Discourse and register analysis approach

—            Text analysis        concentrates on describing the way in which text are organized(sentence structure , cohesion, etc)

—            Discourse analysis       looks at the way language communicate meaning and social and power relations.

—            Halliday ΄s model of discourse analysis

—            -Halliday΄s model of discourse  analysis  , based on what he terms systemic  ΄functional grammar .

—            -This model is geared to the study of language as communication  ,seeing meaning in the writer΄s linguistic choices and systematically relating the choices to a wider sociocultural framework .

—            -It borrows Buhler΄s tripartite division of language functions.

—            Haliday ΄model :relation of genre and register to language

—            Sociocultural environment

—            Genre

—            Register(field , tenor , mode)

—            Discourse semantics(ideational . interpersonal .textual)

—             

—            Lexiogrammar (transitivity ,modality ,theme - rheme/cohesion)

—             

Register

—            1- field: what is being written about  ,e.g. a delivery.

—            2- tenor: who is communicating and to whom  ,e.g. a sales representative to a customer .

—            3- mode: the form of communicating , e.g. written.

—            The field of a text is associated with ideational meaning , which is realized through transitivity patterns ( verb types ,active/passive structures , participants in the process ,etc.)

—            The tenor of a text is associated with interpersonal meaning , which is realized through the patterns of modality ( modal verbs and adverbs such as hopefully , should ,possibly ,and any evaluative  lexis such as beautiful ,dreadful)

—            The mode of a text is associated with textual meaning ,which is  realized through the thematic and information structures (mainly the order and structuring of elements in a clause ) and cohesion ( the way the text hangs together lexically ,including the use of pronouns , ellipsis , collocation , repetition ,etc.).

Individual textual function

 

 
House ΄s model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


House ΄s model of translation quality assessment

House herself rejects the ΄more target – audience oriented notion of translation appropriateness΄ as ΄fundamentally misguided΄ and for this reason bases her model on communicative ST-TT analysis leading to the assessment of the quality of the translation ,highlighting ΄mismatches ΄ or ΄errors ΄. The model based on Halliday ΄s ,involves a systematic comparison of the textual ΄profile΄ of the ST and TT  according to their realization through lexical ,syntatic and textual means.

Textual means refers to

—            1- theme – dynamic : thematic structure and cohesion

—            2-clausal linkage : additive (and ,in addition ) , adversative (but ,however ) ,etc .

—            3- iconic linkage : parallelism of structures.

—            In House ΄s model , covers a variety of elements , some of which are additional to those expressly stated by  Halliday.

—            1- field refers to the subject matter and social action and covers the specificity  of  lexical items.

—            2- tenor includes the addresser’s  temporal, geographical and social provenance as well as his (or her) intellectual ,emotional or affective stance ( his or her “personal viewpoint”) .

—            -social attitude refers to formal , consultative or informal style.

—            3- mode relates to “channel” (spoken/written ,etc) and the degree of participation between addresser and addressee (monologue ,dialogue , etc.) 

—             House ΄s model operates as follows:

—            1- a profile is produced of the ST register.

—            2- to this is added a description of the ST genre realized by the register .

—            3- together ,this allows a “ statement of function” to be made for the ST ,including the ideational and interpersonal component of the function (in the other words ,what information is being conveyed and what the relationship is between sender and receiver). 4- the same descriptive process is then carried out for the TT.

—            5- the TT profile is compared to the ST profile and a statement of “mismatches” or errors is produced ,categorized according to genre and to the situational dimensions of register and genre ; these dimensional errors are referred to as “covertly erroneous errors” , to distinguish them from  “overtly  erroneous errors” , which are denotative mismatches or target system errors .

—            6- a statement of quality is then made of the translation

—            7- finally ,the translation can be categorized into one of two types : overt translation and covert translation

—            Overt translation

—            An overt translation is a TT that does not purport to be an original . It is ‚ “ a translation in which that the addressees of the translation text are quite  “ overtly” not being directly addressed”.

—            Covert translation

—            A covert translation is a translation which enjoys the status of an original source text in the target culture. the ST  is not linked particularly to the ST culture or audience ;both ST and TT address their respective  receivers directly.

—            Equivalence is necessary at the level of genre and the individual text function ‚but what house calls a cultural filter needs to be applied by the translator ‚modifying cultural elements and thus giving the impression that the TT is an original .

—            Baker ’s test and pragmatic level analysis

—            Baker looks at equivalence at a series of level : at word‚ grammar ‚ thematic structure ‚cohesion and pragmatic levels. Of particular interest is her application of the systemic approach to thematic structure and cohesion and the incorporation of the pragmatic level, the way utterances are used in communicative situations.

—            Cohesion

—            Blum – kulka ’ s well known study “ shift of cohesion and coherence in the translation” hypothesizes that increased explication of cohesive ties may be a general strategy adopted by all translators. She shows how changes in cohesion in translation may bring about functional shifts in texts. There is greater cohesion and explicitation  and the fact that a TT is normally longer than a ST.

—            Pragmatic and translation

—            Baker considers various aspects of pragmatic equivalence in translation , applying relevant linguistic concepts to interlinguistic transfer. Baker ’s  definition  of pragmatic is as follow: pragmatic is the study of language in use . It is the study of language in use . It is the study of meaning ,  not as generated by the linguistics system but as conveyed and manipulated by participants in a consummative situation .

—            Three major pragmatic concepts are coherence , presupposition and implicature.

—            The coherence of a text , related to  cohesion, depends on the hearers or receiver expectation and experience of the world . clearly this may not be the same for the ST and TT reader.

—            The area of presupposition is closely related to coherence . it is defined by Baker as “ pragmatic inference” presupposition relates to the linguistic knowledge the sender assume the reciever to have or which are necessary in order to retrieve the sender’s message.

—              Implicature , another form of pragmatic inference , is defined as what the speaker means or implies rather than what s/he says.

—            The concept of implicature was developed by Paul Grice , who described a set of rules or maxims that operate in normal co-operative conversation : these are

—             1- quantity : give the amount of information that is necessary ;do not give to0 much or too little.

—            2-quality : say only which you know to be true or what you can support.

—            3- relevance :what you say should be relevant to the conversation .

—            4- manner: say what you need to say in a way that is appropriate to the message you wish to convey and which will be understood by the receiver

—            Hatim and mayson pay extra attention to the realization in translation of ideational and and interpersonal functions and incorporate into their model a semiotic level of discourse .

—            In particular , Hatim and mayson concentrate on identifying dynamic and stable elements in  a text . These are presented as a continuum and linked to the translation strategy : more stable STs may require a fairly literal approach , while whit more dynamic Sts , the translator is faced with more interesting challenges and literal translation may no longer be an option

—             

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+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیست و هفتم خرداد 1390ساعت 14:31  توسط classmate  | 

نمونه سوال Munday

نمونه سوال از كتاب Munday

 

صفحه 1...................................................................................تاريخچه ترجمه

صفحه 7................................................................................... Brief history of the discipline

صفحه10..................................................................................نمودار

صفحه12..................................................................................نمودار

صفحه26..................................................................................paraphrase/metephore/imitation

صفحه27..................................................................................five principles

صفحه27..................................................................................three general laws

صفحه37..................................................................................Roman Jakobson

صفحه38..................................................................................Nida

صفحه42..................................................................................formal & dynamic equivalence

صفحه44..................................................................................cmmunicative translation &

صفحه60..................................................................................انواع shifts

صفحه72..................................................................................text type

صفحه73..................................................................................REISS/informative text&

صفحه78..................................................................................قسمت هاي Bold شده

صفحه79.................................................................................Skopos Theory

صفحه80................................................................................بالاي صفحه 1و2و3و...

صفحه94................................................................................Baker's text &

صفحه95...............................................................................پايين صفحه/functional sentence… 

موفق و پيروز باشيد


ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیست و چهارم خرداد 1390ساعت 19:56  توسط classmate  | 

خلاصه دو بخش 33 و 34 کاپلان

فصل  33

نظریه Nida درباره  ترجمه  :

تولید مجدد نزدیکترین معادل طبیعی برای یک پیام از زبان مبداء

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نظریه  Newmark درباره ترجمه : 

1-ترجمه یک فرآورده است product

2-ترجمه یک حرفه است  profession

3-ترجمه یک رشته است dicipline

4-ترجمه یک فعالیت است  act  or  operation

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ترجمه : Written  transfer   &   Oral   transfer

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Written  translation =Translation

Oral  translation = Interpretation

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Translation  studies = The  academic  dicipline  of  translation

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What  "translation  studies"  emphasizes  on:

1-the  act  of  translating

2-research  in  translation

3-translation  product

4-profession  of  translation

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Typologies  of  translation(depending  on  who  performs it)

1-human  translation

2-machine  translation

3-computer-assisted  translation

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انواع  ترجمه  ماشیتی  با توجه به سیستمی که استفاده شده:

1-  direct  system  متن  مبدا  مستقیما  به  متن  مقصد  تبدیل می شود

2-      transfer system متن مبدا  بعد از  چند مرحله واسط بطور  غیر مستقیم به متن مقصد تبدیل می شود

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انواع ترجمه ماشینی با توجه به ماهیت دخالت انسان:

1-ترجمه از قبل ویراست شده(به منظور ساده کردن ) pre-editing  translation

2-ترجمه پس ویراست(بعد از ترجمه اصلاح می شود) postediting  translation

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انواع  ترجمه انسانی با توجه به نقش (   function)

1-            pragmatic  translation مربوط به ترجمه متونی است که هدف خبری دارند

2-          literary  translation     مربوط  به متونی  که توصیفی و زیبایی شناسانه هستند

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انواع ترجمه با توجه به متن مبدا source  text

1-   general  translation   ترجمه ای که به دانش تخصصی اندکی نیاز دارد یا اصلا به دانش تخصصی نیاز ندارد

2-     specialized   translation

  ترجمه ای که به دانش تخصصی نیاز دارد

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انواع  ترجمه با توجه به هدف کلی ترجمه (    based  on  general  purpose  of  translation)

1-        academic  translation هدف آن فراگیری و اکتساب زبان برای مترجم است

2-       professional  translation  هدف آن  انتقال یک پیام به کاربر متن مقصد است

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عوامل مختلفی که در ترجمه دخیل هستند(  different   pairs  of  elements )

1-two  authors

2-two  texts

3-two  sets  of  intended  reports

4-two  languages

5-two  cultures

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عواملی که در کیفیت پیام ترجمه تاثیر می گذارند (   factors  that  condition  the  message  of  Tr)

1-فرهنگ نویسندهculture

2-زبان نویسندهlanguage

3-آموزش و تحصیلان نویسنده education

4-زمینه اجتماعی نویسنده socioprofessional  background

5-مهارتهای زبان شناسانه نویسنده  linguistic  skills

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مراحل  فرایند ترجمه 

1-تحلیل متن مبدا (هدف درک پیامی است که متن قرار است انتقال دهد و این کار از طریق شناخت:

                                                                              --لغات

                                                                              --معنی آنها

                                                                              --روابط آنها

                                                                              --درک مفاهیمی که پشت واژگان است

2-انتقال پیام متن مبدا به متن مقصد :این مرحله

           توسط  "نایدا"      transfer  نامیده می شود

           توسط "دلیسلی"   reformulatio نامیده می شود

           توسط  "بل"       synthesis نامیده می شود


3-بازبینی      verification در این مرحله مترجم متن مبدا و مقصد را با هم چک می کند که چیزی حذف نشده باشد ،اضافه نشده باشد و یا معنی مخدوش نشده باشد.

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چند مدل از پژوهش هایی که می توان درباره ترجمه انجام داد :

1-translation  process

2-translation  products

3-translation  quality  assessment

4-methods  of  training  translators

5-bilingual  terminology

6-lexicography

7-the  use  of  technology  in  translation

8-machine  translation

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Theoritical  models  of  translation

1-literary  models

2-linguistic  models

3-sociolinguistic  or  communicative  models

4-interpretive  models

5-semiotic  models

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DTS=descriptive  translation  studies 

به جای تمرکز روی  فرایند ترجمه روی  مشاهده ی فرآورده های واقعی موجود ترجمه تمرکز می کند 

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Kinds  of  corpora

1-parallel  corpora

2-multilingual  corpora

3-comparable  corpora

4-monolingual  corpora

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TAP=think  aloud  protocol

از مترجمین خواسته می شود که درست همزمان با انجام کار ترجمه آنچه را که توی ذهنشان می آید بنویسند

to verbalize  what  they  are  thinking

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سه رویداد trendمهم که بر شغل و فرایند ترجمه تاثیر گذاشته اند :

1-globalization

2-specialization

3-technologization

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Technologies  available  for  translators:

1-term  banks

2-translation  memories

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Systran=an  operating  machine  translation  system

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  فصل  34


what  is   interpretation

it is  the  use  of  oral  or  sign-language  for  translation.It  is  2  kinds

1-simultanous  interpretation

2-consecutive  interpretation

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who  is  an  interpreter

Someone  who  converts  an  expression  into  a  comfortable  and  tangible  equivalent  in  the  target  language.

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what  an  interpreter  tries  to  convey?

1-semantic  elements

2-intentions

3-feelings


that  exist  in  the  message

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نمی توان        translation   و  interpretation     را به جای یکدیگر بکار برد.

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In  simultaneous   interpretation  the  interpreter  renders  the  message  from  the  source  language  instantly  and  with  minimum  delay.

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Consecutive  interpretation

in  this  interpretation  there  is  a  delay  between  the  speech  delivered  by  the  source  language  speaker  and  the  interpretation  by  the  target  language  interpreter.

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Two  pre-interpretation  exercises

1-sight   translation

2-memorization

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Sight  translation  is  a  combination  of  interpretation  and  translation

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Different  types  of  interpretation :

1-conference

2-judical (court)

3-escort

4-public  sector

5-medical

6-sign  language

7-media

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیستم خرداد 1390ساعت 17:38  توسط classmate  | 

چند نمونه سوال درس مقاله نویسی

فکر می کنم ،اگر قرار باشد سر جلسه امتحان متنی بنویسیم ، درباره یکی از موارد زیر خواهد بود :

(تذکر : توصیه می شود در هرکدام از موارد زیر دانشجویان یک مطلب را از قبل درنظر بگیرند و تمرینی مطلبی درآن مورد برای خودشان بنویسند و بعد با آمادگی ذهنی سر جلسه بروند)

A) Write  a  short  definition  of  a  term  for  2  different  audiences(a  graduate  student  in  your  field  and  a  graduate  student  in  another  field

.

B) Write  a  problem-solution   text


C)Write   a  GS  text


D)Write   a  extended  definition  of  an  important  concept


E)Write   a  process  description  text


F)Write   a  description  of  a  method



+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه شانزدهم خرداد 1390ساعت 21:29  توسط classmate  | 

جزوه کلاسی دکتر دهقانیان

ادبیات ایران در ادبیات  جهان 

استاد : دکتر دهقانیان

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کتاب های معرفی شده :

1-ادبیات ایران در ادبیات جهان : دکتر اسماعیل آذر

2-گستره ی شعر فارسی در انگلستان و آمریکا : جان –دی- یوحنان   ترجمه دکتر احمد تمیم داری 

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سرفصل های کلی که مورد بررسی قرار خواهند گرفت :

-تاثیر ادبیات غرب بر ادبیات ایران

-تاثیر ادبیات ایران بر ادبیات غرب

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دلایل توجه غرب به ایران :

1-هند

2-رقابت با روسیه

3-منابع داخلی ایران

4-توجه به فرهنگ شرق (مستشرقین)

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کتاب  سفرنامه حاج بابای اصفهانی  نوشته ی جیمز موریه  و ترجمه میرزا حبیب اصفهانی یکی از بهترین منابع در دسترس برای بررسی نگرش غربیان به ایران است.این کتاب در ژانر طنز نوشته شده و وقایع آن  مربوط  به  زمان قاجار و عباس میرزا هستند.

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سوال : چرا نویسندگان و شعرای ایران مورد توجه غرب قرار گرفته اند؟

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بخوانید : چراغ ها را من خاموش می کنم . زویا پیرزاد

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علل  توجه غرب  به مولانا : می تواند به عنوان موضوع یک کنفرانس کلاسی انتخاب شود.

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قلعه حیوانات (جرج ارول)

کلیله و دمنه

داستان

قصه (داستان)

عناصر داستانی

عناصر داستانی

سیاسی

سیاسی-اخلاقی

تمثیلی-رمزی

تمثیلی-رمزی

  

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محتوا  Theme

صحنه-فضا Setting

شخصیت Character

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  بخوانید: عقاید یک دلقک – هاینریش بل

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تفاوت قصه و داستان :

در قصه : -عناصر داستانی پرداخت نشده اند.

             -توالی داستانی نداریم.

در داستان :-عناصر داستانی پرداخت شده اند.

             -توالی داستانی داریم.

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در کتاب "سووشون" شخصیت اصلی داستان "زری" است و نه "یوسف" اما به نظر می رسد که شخصیت اصلی "یوسف" باشد.

"یوسف" در این داستان عقیده اش تغییر نمی کند اما "زری" تغییر می کند و متحول می شود.

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برای جلسه بعد از عید تهیه کنید : لیستی از کتاب شناسی و کارهایی که درباره ی ادبیات تطبیقی در ایران انجام شده است.

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موضوع یک کنفرانس کلاسی: ادبیات تطبیقی Comparative  Literature

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برای کار کردن در حوزه ی ادبیات تطبیقی دانستن حداقل دو زبان لازم است.

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در ترجمه : یکی از مهمترین مسائل معادل یابی است :

هزل-هجو-طنز  Satire-Humor-Irony

کاریزماتیک : فره مند

برای این کلمه نمی توان معادل دقیقی ارائه داد دلیل آن هم  موارد زیر  است  :

-فقدان معادل دقیق

-بافت فرهنگی

-محدودیت های زبانی

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فره ایزدی : نیرویی که خداوند در درون انسان قرار داده است (از ایران باستان). کلمه "فره مند" را می توان به عنوان معادلی پیشنهادی برای "کاریزماتیک" ارائه نمود.

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نمایشنامه ی "جعفر خان از فرنگ برگشته" نوشته ی "حسن مقدم" مشهور ترین اثر نمایشی دوران مدرن ایران است.

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سوال :چرا ژانر ادبیات نمایشی در زبان فارسی سابقه بسیار کمی دارد؟

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ادبیات فارسی "پند و اندرزی" است ، "تجویزی" است، "اخلاقی" است ، تسلط دارد ، دانای کل ، قدرت دارد.

در ادبیات نمایشی غرب : همزاد پنداری وجود دارد.

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ادبیات "زیر ساخت" نیست ، "روساخت" است.ادبیات "برآیند" یک اجتماع است.ادبیات ظاهرا روساخت است اما در واقع زیر ساخت  است.

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نخستین ارتباطات ایران و غرب :  

1-پیش از صفویه و از زمان ایلخانان

2-از زمان صفویه (غرب برای مقابله با امپراطوری عثمانی  صفویه را  تقویت کرد)

3-از زمان ناصرالدین شاه و عباس میرزا .کتاب سرگذشت حاج بابای اصفهانی مربوط به این دوره است.

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"مقامه" یک ژانر ادبی است که "پدربزرگ" داستان امروزی جهان است . این کلمه عربی است ، توی فارسی هم داریم :"مقامات حمیدی".اولین مقاله نویسان عرب ، ایرانی هستند : حریری – همدانی.

این کلمه در اصل در فارسی اوستایی "گاثه" بوده است که تغییر شکل پیدا کرده و به مقامه تبدیل شده است.

در مقامه داستان از زبان "راوی" شروع می شود و بعد این قهرمان داستان است که آن را پیش می برد.مقامه از ادبی ادبیات  عرب به غرب می رود ، از طریق "اندلس" –اسپانیا ی امروزی- و در اسپانیا اولین داستان مدرن یعنی "دن کیشوت" –سر وانتس- شکل می گیرد.پس از آن "رمانس" بر اساس حوادث شکل می گیرد.بعدا این "رمانس" ها به "رمان مدرن" تبدیل می شوند.

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ادبیات تطبیقی شاخه ای از نقد ادبی است که محصول غرب است و محصول ایران نیست.

ادبیات  تطبیقی می تواند دو حالت داشته باشد:

1-نقد و بررسی ادبیات ملل گوناگون (گوته-حافظ)

2-کمک به تولید آثار ادبی جدید (فیتزجرالد-خیام)

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در ادبیات تطبیقی دانستن تاریخ و تاریخ ادبیات خیلی مهم است. در این کار ما مثلا زمینه های اشتراکات فرهنگی را مورد مطالعه قرار می دهیم.

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چرا ادبیات تطبیقی مهم است؟

1-برای پیشبرد صلح و تفاهم جهانی

2-سیر تحولات اندیشه بشر را نشان می دهد

3-تشخیص فرهنگ اصیل و بومی از فرهنگ بیگانه

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

چین : نماد صورت برای ایران است  و هند نماد معنا است.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

بخوانید : انسان و سمبل هایش اثر کارل گوستاو یونگ

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یک موضوع پیشنهادی برای پایان نامه : مقایسه ادبیات کودک در  پنج سال اخیر انگلیس و ایران (داستان و یا شعر)

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ادبیات تطبیقی توانسته است به تولید آثار ادبی و فهم جهانی و تفاهم بین المللی کمک شایانی بکند.

 

هزار و یک شب

چند ویژگی

1-سبکی کاملا شرقی دارد

2-راوی و قهرمان  شهرزاد قصه گوست (در شهری که به شدت مردسالار است)

3-به نظر می رسد که شهرزاد ایرانی باشد چرا که این اسم ایرانی است.

4-این کتاب منشاء بسیاری از داستان ها در ادبیات جهان است.

5-با اینکه راوی داستان یک زن(شهرزاد) است اما داستان زن ستیز است و زن در آن منشاء انحراف،فریب و شهوترانی به حساب می آید.می گویند این داستان ریشه هندی دارد.شاید زن ستیزی هزار و یک شب به ادبیات زن ستیز هند که از عقاید مانوی الهام گرفته برگردد.در کلیله و دمنه (که منشاء هندی دارد) هم داستانی نیست که پای زن به میان بیاید و وی منشاء چیزی منفی نباشد.در داستان سند باد هم همین موضوع صدق می کند.

تاثیر هزار و یک شب روی آثار سایر نویسندگان

1-موبی دیک نوشته هرمان ملویل

2-دیکنز

3-بورخس که از پیشروان رئالیسم جادویی است.

4-برخی سبک حاج بابای اصفهانی جیمز موریه را هم الهام گرفته از هزار و یک شب می دانند.

5-سبک سورئالیسم در نقاشی هم از هزار و یک شب الهام گرفته است.

6-یکی از پرفروش ترین فیلم های هالیوود فیلم "علاءالدین و چراغ جادو" است که بر اساس داستانی از هزار و یک شب است.

 

کلیله و دمنه

 

1-این کتاب هندی استو

2-سیاسی ترین کتاب ادبی است که در طول تاریخ نوشته شده است.

3-در این کتاب سه نوع تفکر هندی، ایرانی و اسلامی حضور دارند.

4-مرزبان نامه نوعی کپی برداری از سبک کلیله و دمنه است.

5-بهترین کارهایی که تاکنون روی کلیله و دمنه انجام شده توسط فرانسویان بوده است.

6-عبدالله بن مقفع را بعد از ترجمه کلیله و دمنه یکی از سرآمدان نثر عربی می دانند.

7-سندبادنامه نوعی کپی برداری از سبک کلیله و دمنه است.

فردوسی و شاهنامه

 

قرن سوم و چهارم(دوره فردوسی) عصری است که  نهضتی بزرگ به نام "شعوبیه" شکل می گیرد(شعوبیه :جدال ملی گرایانه قوم عرب و ایرانی)

اعراب بعد از فتح ایران چه بسیار به تحقیر ایرانیان پرداختند حاصل این تحقیر شکل گیری شعوبیه است.شعوبیه در واقع یک نبرد فکری و فرهنگی است.

قرن سوم و چهارم و حتی پنجم دوران اوج و شکوفایی "حماسه" در ایران است.

دقیقی اولین کسی است که –پیش از فردوسی-هزار بیت شاهنامه می سراید.(دقیقی زرتشتی است).به دست غلام خودش –تحت تاثیر افکار اعراب- کشته می شود.این هزار بیت "گشتاسب نامه" است.فردوسی بعد از مرگ دقیقی برای زنده نگاه داشتن نام وی اشعارش را در دل شاهنامه خودش جا می دهد.گشتاسب نامه به نوعی به زرتشت اشاره دارد.از طرفی فردوسی با آوردن اشعار دقیقی در شاهنامه اش در واقع می خواهد قوت و ارزش اشعار خودش را در قیاس با دقیقی به مخاطب نشان دهد.

در این چهار قرن –پس از حمله اعراب-زبان فارسی تقریبا مرده است اما سامانیان که در شمال ایران(آسیای میانه) حکومت می کنند باعث احیای زبان فارسی می شوند.تاریخ بلعمی ،رودکی ، شهید بلخی و...مربوط به این دوره بودند.

فردوسی خودش را دهقان نژاد می نامد.دهقانان طبقه فئودالیته ایران بودند یعنی کسانی زمین و ملک خودشان را داشتند و به حکومت نیازی نمی بینند.

بعد غزنویان روی کار آمدند.فردوسی تا قبل از روی کار آمدن آنها همه مال و دارایی اش را صرف سرودن شاهنامه کرده است.بعد از روی کار آمدن سلطان محمود- که به ادبیات اهمیت می دهد- فردوسی به مجمع ادبای دربار راه پیدا می کند.عباس اسفراینی که وزیر اعظم سلطان محمود بوده مکاتبات اداری را از عربی به فارسی تبدیل می کند و احتمالا به تشویق همین فرد است که فردوسی اشعاری را در مدح سلطان سروده و به شاهنامه می افزاید.

 

منابع شاهنامه :1-شفاهی : افراد خاص : همسرش(به نام بلبل که در شاهنامه از او نام برده)-دهقانان  و مردم عادی

                  2-مکتوب :مقدمه شاهنامه ابومنصوری-شاهنامه ابوالموید بلخی

 

حماسه : 1-طبیعی :ملی

           2-مصنوعی

 

مایاکوفسکی و مینورسکی از روس هایی بودند که روی شاهنامه کار کرده اند.

بهترین چاپی که از شاهنامه انجام شده در آمریکا و توسط "خالقی مطلق" در سالهای اخیر بوده است.

نامه "رستم فرخزاد" در شاهنامه درد دلها و شکوائیه خود فردوسی است.

ژول مول که اصالتا آلمانی است در غرب روی شاهنامه کار کرده است.

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه دهم خرداد 1390ساعت 12:48  توسط classmate  | 

خلاصه فصل چهارم translation studies (munday

The focus in this chapter is on the following three models :

1-      Vinay and darbelnet’s taxonomy which is the classical model and  one which  has had a very wide impact.

2-      Catford’s linguistics approach which included the term shift of translation.

3-      Van Leuven –Zwart’s model, designed for the analysis of the key concept of small ‘microlevel’ translation shift and the gauging of their effect on the more general ‘macroleve’l   .

 Vinay and darbelnet’s model

1-direct translation

2-obliqeue translation

Direct translation:

 1 . Borrowing: the SL word is transferred directly to the TL.

2. Calque: this is a special kind of borrowing where the SL expression or structure is transferred in a literal translation.

3. Literal translation: this is word for word translation, which describe as being most common between languages of the same family and culture. The literal translation may be unacceptable because it:

(a) Gives a different meaning.

(b) Has no meaning.

 (c) is impossible for structural reasons.

(d) Does not have a corresponding expression within the metalinguistic experience of  the TL.

Oblique translation

4. Transposition: this a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense transposition can be: obligatory & optional…………..v to n and adv to verb

5. Modulation: This changes the semantics and point of view of the SL .modulation at the level of message is subdivided along the following lines:

Abstract for concrete  

Cause –effect                                     

Part-whole

Part -another part

Reversal of term     

Negation of opposite

Active to passive (and vice versa)

Space for time

Rethinking of intervals and limits (in space and time)

Change of symbol (including fixed and new metaphors).

6. Equivalence: refer to cases where languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. Equivalence is particularly useful in translating idioms and proverbs

7. Adaptation: this involves changing the cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture.

The seven main translation categories are described as operating on three levels 1.the lexicon 2. Syntactic structures 3. The message

 A further important parameter taken into account by Viny and Darbelnet is that of servitude and option:

Servitude: refer to obligatory transposition and modulation due to a difference between the two languages systems.

Option: refer to non-obligatory changes that due to the translator’s own style and preferences.

This is crucial difference that it is option the realm of stylistics that should be the translator main concern and then chose from among the available option to express the nuances of the message.

Five steps moving from ST to TT : 1.identify the unit of translation 2. Examine the SL text, evaluating the descriptive .effective and intellectual content of the units 3.reconstruct the metaliguistics context of the message 4.evaluate the stylistic effects 5.produce and revise the TT.

They consider the unit of translation to be a combination of a lexicological unit and unit of thought and define it as smallest segment of the utterance whose signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated individually.  

Catford and translation ‘shifts’

Catford follows the Firthian and Hallidayan model which analyzes language as communication, operating functionally in context and on a range of different levels(e.g. phonology  ,graphology, grammar, lexis)and ranks(sentences, clause ,group, word, morpheme ,etc).

.A formal correspondent is any TL category (unit, class, element of structure, etc)which can       be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the same place in the economy of  TL as given SL category  occupies in the SL.

  . A textual correspondent is any TL text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion … to be the equivalent of a given SL text or portion of text.

Translation shifts are departures of from formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to TL.

Kinds of shifts: shifts of level and shifts of category

1.      A level shift would be something which is expressed by grammar in one language and lexis in another language.

2.      Category shifts are subdivided into four kinds:

 (a). structural shifts: these are most common form of shift and involve mostly a shift in grammatical structure .

 (b) class shifts: these comprise shifts from one part of speech to another

 ( c ) unit shifts or rank shifts: these are shifts where the translation equivalent in the TL is at different rank to the SL. ’rank’ here refer to the hierarchical linguistic units of sentence, clause, group ,word and morpheme.    

 (d) Intra-system shifts: these are shifts that take place when the SL and TL possess approximately corresponding systems but where the translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL.      

The comparative model involves a detailed comparison of ST and TT and a classification of all the micro structural shifts (within sentences, clause and phrases).

Van leuven-Zwart model:

1. First divided selected passage into comprehensible unit[s]’ called ‘transemes’

2. Next define the architranseme, which is the invariant core sense of the ST Transeme this serve as interlingual comparison.

3. A comparison is then made of each separate transme with the architranseme and relationship between the two transeme is established.

If both transeme have a synonymic relationship with the Architransme, no shift is deemed to have occurred. the absence of a synonymic relationship indicates a shift in translation, and shifts are divided into three main categories: modulation , modification, mutation.   

      The descriptive model is a macrostrutural model, designed for the analysis of translated literature it is based on concepts borrowed from narratology and stylistics 

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

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Questions , Claims, Hypotheses

Asking  questions

The  research  process   starts  with  asking   question.

 

We  ask  questions,  and  try  to  understand  the  answers  we  discover.

 

One  of  the  secrets  of  research   is   learning  how  to  ask  questions.

 

Questions  then  lead  to  possible  answers, and  then  to  claims  and   hypotheses.

 

Step  by  step   beginning    a  research   

a)      In  what  a  slice  of  reality  we  are  interested  in : The  Topic

b)      We  begin  to  wonder  about  some  aspects  of  the  topic

c)       At  first ,we  start  to  ask  some  general  questions  about  those  aspects

d)      As  the  research  topic  is  more  clearly  defined  by  general  questions,the  questions  gradually  become  more  specific

e)      We  are  supposed  to  read  more  relevant  literature  to  discover  more  good  questions

f)       We  should  be  able  to  formulate  a  specific  research  question  or  research  problem

 

 

Hint :

Don't  worry  if  it  doesn't  appear  obvious  at  the  start; just  keep  on  asking  questions  and  exploring,drawing  mind  maps  for  yourself, and  then  new  maps…

 

Questions :

1)      Initial  questions  which  relate  to  the  meaning   or  definition : What does  X  mean? How can X best be defined?....By :

                         --conceptual  analysis

                         --phylosophical  questions

                         --parapherasing  the  question  by  interpretion

                         --studying  the  previous  literature,interviews  or  questionnaire  about  the  topic

2)      Basic  data  questions: What  can  I  find  out  about  X?

It  is  such  a  kind  of   introductory  question  which  leads  to  preliminary  exploratory  research. For  example,

--what  was  happening  on  the  translation  scene  in 18th  century  France.

--I   wonder  how  professional  translators  actually  work  today.

Then  the  questions  become  more   specific:

--what  literature  was  translated   from  German  to  French  between  1740  and  1760,by whom,  and  for  which  clients?

What  use  does  a  particular  sample  of  professional  medical  translators  make  of  internet  resources?

3)       Descriptive  questions :

--what   is  the  translation  like?, compared  to  its  original?

--How   can  I describe  what  the  translation  by  this   translator/of  this  text  type  seem  to  have  in  common?

--How  are  these  translations  different  from  non-translated  texts  in  the  target  language?    

Then  the  questions  become  more   specific:

--How  has  the  translator  dealt  with  place  names?

--where  are  the  relative  frequencies   of  relative  and  main  clauses  in  these  translations  and  these  comparable  non-translated  texts?

 

4)      Cause  and  effects  questions :

--why  is  the  translation  like  this, with  so many  errors?

--why  are  there  so  many  more  relative  clauses  in  these  translations  than  I  would  have  expected?

--why  was  this  novel  translated  and  not  that one?

--why  did  people  react  like  that?

 

Making   a  Claim

v      Claim  is  the  researcher's  contribution  to  the  field.

v      If  there  is  no  claim,your  work  will  just  sound  like  a  summary  of  other  people's  ideas  or  a  list  of  facts  or  examples.

v      You  might  start  with  a  claim  made  by  others ,and  proceed  by  testing  it  on  your  own  data.

 

 

 

As  you  proceed,you  will  gradually  be  able  to  make  your  basic  research  question by following  these  steps:

1-reading  about  the  topic  in  the  past  discovered   and  proposed  data.

2-exploring   the  specific  data  needed.

3-formulating   possible   answers  to  the  question.

4-formulating   good-looking  answers  as  specific  claims ,supported  by  evidence  and  logical  argument.

 

 

Reaching   a  claim  is  possible  by:

1-logical   analysis

2-painstaking   examination  of  the  data

3-intuition

 

Four   kinds  of  Hypotheses

 

1-Interpretive  hypotheses : they  are  claims about  research  questions  having  to  do  with meaning, definition  or  interpretation.In  other  words, something   is  defined as, or seen  as, or  interpreted  as, something  else.

Example: Michael  Cronin (2000)  nomadic  theory  of  translation.His  claim  is  that it is  useful  and  interesting  to  interpret  translators  as  being  like  nomads.

 

2-Descriptive  hypotheses : they  are  claims  made  in  response  to  descriptive  research  questions.

Example: If  you  claim  that  all  dogs  have  tails-that the  condition  of  having  tails  is  valid  for  all  dogs- you  are  making  a  descriptive  analysis.

 

Descriptive  hypotheses  are  either  unrestricted  or  restricted  ones.

--the  claim  that  all  dogs  have  tails  is a  universal   unrestricted  one.

--the  claim  that  all  dogs in  our  local (in  our  street)-except  two- are  friendly  is  a  restricted  one.This  claim  is  less  than  universal,but  it  is   still  a  generalization.

 

Hint : Descriptive  hypotheses  aim  to  generalize, not  to  explain.

 

3-Explanatory  hypotheses : they  are  hypotheses  that  explain  the  existence  of  a  particular  phenomenon  in  something   in  order  to  generalize  it  on  similar subjects.

Example : a  translator's  use  of  footnotes  might  lead  you  to propose  an  explanatory  hypothesis  for  the  existence  of  footnotes.

 

4-Predictive  hypotheses : they  are  hypotheses  that  predict  the  resulting  phenomena.

Example: If  you  have  discovered  certain  features  in  a  translation  caused  the  client  to   reject  it, you  might  want  to  predict  that  if such  features  occur  in  any  translation, then  the  client  will  reject  it.

 

Hypothesis  Testing

 

Good  hypotheses (claims)  must  be  both  justified  and  tested.

 

Justifying  a  hypothesis  means  explaining  why  do  you  think  it  is  a  reasonable  one.

 

We  can  justify   a  hypothesis  by :

1-argument

2-relating   it  to  other, more established   hypotheses

3-preliminary   evidence

 

The  first   step  to  test  a  hypothesis  is  to  operationalize  it : it  means  to  reduce  the  hypothesis  to   concrete  terms  to  make  it  practicable.

Hint : hypotheses  are  often  abstract  in  their   initial  form.

 

Testing

The  strongest  requirement  for  an  empirical  hypothesis  is  that  it  should  be  falsifiable which  means : it  should  be  possible  to  prove  it  wrong.

 

From  an  empirical  point  of  view, a   claim  that  can not be  tested  at  all  is  not  worth  making. If  a  hypothesis  cannot  be  tested  directly ,  it still  should  have  testable  consequences.

 

Hypotheses  can  be  tested  on  four  criteria : (these  are  ACID  tests…)

A…for   Added   value   in  general: new  understanding

C…for   Comparative   value, in   comparison  with  other  hypotheses.

I…for     Internal  value : logic, clarity, elegance, economy.

D…against   Data , empirical  evidence.

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه بیست و چهارم اردیبهشت 1390ساعت 23:6  توسط classmate  |